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Diabetes. 2004 Aug;53(8):1959-65.

The regulation of glucose-excited neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus by glucose and feeding-relevant peptides.

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  • 1Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, New Jersey Medical School (UMDNJ), Newark, New Jersey 07101-1709, USA.

Abstract

Glucosensing neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) were studied using electrophysiological and immunocytochemical techniques in neonatal male Sprague-Dawley rats. We identified glucose-excited and -inhibited neurons, which increase and decrease, respectively, their action potential frequency (APF) as extracellular glucose levels increase throughout the physiological range. Glucose-inhibited neurons were found predominantly in the medial ARC, whereas glucose-excited neurons were found in the lateral ARC. ARC glucose-excited neurons in brain slices dose-dependently increased their APF and decreased their ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP channel) currents as extracellular glucose levels increased from 0.1 to 10 mmol/l. However, glucose sensitivity was greatest as extracellular glucose decreased to <2.5 mmol/l. The glucokinase inhibitor alloxan increases KATP single-channel currents in glucose-excited neurons in a manner similar to low glucose. Leptin did not alter the activity of ARC glucose-excited neurons. Although insulin did not affect ARC glucose-excited neurons in the presence of 2.5 mmol/l (steady-state) glucose, they were stimulated by insulin in the presence of 0.1 mmol/l glucose. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) inhibited and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone stimulated ARC glucose-excited neurons. ARC glucose-excited neurons did not show pro-opiomelanocortin immunoreactivity. These data suggest that ARC glucose-excited neurons may serve an integrative role in the regulation of energy balance.

PMID:
15277373
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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