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Am J Ind Med. 2004 Aug;46(2):196-202.

Predictors of smoke-free workplaces by employee characteristics: who is left unprotected?

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  • 1UMDNJ-School of Public Health, Division of Health Education & Behavioral Science, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903-2688, USA.



Over the last decade, there has been steady progress in the adoption of workplace smoking policies in the United States. However, the benefits of a smoke-free workplace are not distributed equally among the workforce.


Data from 44,357 adults who reported that they work indoors were derived from an optional tobacco module on the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), administered by 25 states. Logistic regression was utilized to examine factors associated with the absence of a smoke-free workplace policy.


Overall, 70.9% of respondents reported working under a smoke-free workplace policy. The likelihood of being protected by a smoke-free workplace policy was significantly lower among workers who were younger, male, non-white, engaged in heavy labor, earned less than 50,000 US dollars annually, had a high school education or less, smoked everyday, or worked in the South or Midwest.


There remain considerable gaps in smoke-free workplace policy coverage.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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