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Curr Biol. 2004 Jul 27;14(14):1296-302.

Rictor, a novel binding partner of mTOR, defines a rapamycin-insensitive and raptor-independent pathway that regulates the cytoskeleton.

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  • 1Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.

Abstract

The mammalian TOR (mTOR) pathway integrates nutrient- and growth factor-derived signals to regulate growth, the process whereby cells accumulate mass and increase in size. mTOR is a large protein kinase and the target of rapamycin, an immunosuppressant that also blocks vessel restenosis and has potential anticancer applications. mTOR interacts with the raptor and GbetaL proteins to form a complex that is the target of rapamycin. Here, we demonstrate that mTOR is also part of a distinct complex defined by the novel protein rictor (rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR). Rictor shares homology with the previously described pianissimo from D. discoidieum, STE20p from S. pombe, and AVO3p from S. cerevisiae. Interestingly, AVO3p is part of a rapamycin-insensitive TOR complex that does not contain the yeast homolog of raptor and signals to the actin cytoskeleton through PKC1. Consistent with this finding, the rictor-containing mTOR complex contains GbetaL but not raptor and it neither regulates the mTOR effector S6K1 nor is it bound by FKBP12-rapamycin. We find that the rictor-mTOR complex modulates the phosphorylation of Protein Kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) and the actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that this aspect of TOR signaling is conserved between yeast and mammals.

PMID:
15268862
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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