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Blood. 2004 Nov 1;104(9):2976-80. Epub 2004 Jul 13.

Limits of HLA mismatching in unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation.

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  • 1Division of Clinical Research, D4-100 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. epetersd@fhcrc.org

Abstract

HLA matching between the donor and recipient improves the success of unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Matched donors are available for only a minority of patients. Further information is needed to evaluate the limits of HLA mismatching. We examined the association of mortality with HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 mismatching in 948 patients who received a T-replete unrelated HCT for treatment of a marrow disorder. A single HLA allele or antigen mismatch was associated with increased mortality among patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) within 2 years after diagnosis compared to patients with no HLA mismatch, but not among those with more advanced malignancy. In particular, a single HLA-C mismatch conferred increased risk of mortality compared to matches. There was a suggestion for increased mortality with multiple mismatches involving HLA-DQB1 compared to multiple mismatches not involving HLA-DQB1. Donors with a single HLA allele or antigen mismatch may be used for HCT when a fully matched donor is not available for patients with diseases that do not permit time for a lengthy search. Whenever possible, HLA-C mismatches should be avoided for patients with early stage CML, and HLA-DQB1 mismatches should be avoided for patients with multiple mismatches.

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