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Curr Opin Immunol. 2004 Aug;16(4):483-7.

Toll-like receptors and microbes take aim at each other.

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  • 1Institute for Systems Biology, 1441 N. 34th St, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key components of effective innate immunity. As such, pathogenic microorganisms must evade recognition by TLRs, manipulate the consequences of TLR activation, or contend with the inflammatory consequences of TLR activation. Recent studies have improved our understanding of the various mechanisms by which pathogenic organisms manipulate the TLR recognition system.

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