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Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004 Jul;70(7):4411-4.

Combining catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization and microautoradiography to detect substrate utilization by bacteria and Archaea in the deep ocean.

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  • 1Department of Biological Oceanography, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands.


The recently developed CARD-FISH protocol was refined for the detection of marine Archaea by replacing the lysozyme permeabilization treatment with proteinase K. This modification resulted in about twofold-higher detection rates for Archaea in deep waters. Using this method in combination with microautoradiography, we found that Archaea are more abundant than Bacteria (42% versus 32% of 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole counts) in the deep waters of the North Atlantic and that a larger fraction of Archaea than of Bacteria takes up l-aspartic acid (19% versus 10%).

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