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J Nerv Ment Dis. 2004 Jul;192(7):503-7.

The prevalence of psychiatric disorder among a community sample of crack cocaine users: an exploratory study with practical implications.

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  • 1Department of Community Health, Center for Interventions, Treatment and Addictions Research, Wright State University School of Medicine, Dayton, OH 45435, USA.


The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV was used to assess the lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorder among not-in-treatment crack cocaine users (N = 313). The most common dependencies involved cocaine (59.7%), alcohol (37.7%), and cannabis (12.1%). The most common nondependency disorders were antisocial personality disorder (ASPD; 24%), depression (17.8%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 11.8%). Comorbidity was present in 36.4% of the sample. Proportionately more white than black users were dependent on cocaine, alcohol, amphetamine, and sedative-hypnotics. More white than black users experienced ASPD, depression, PTSD, and attention deficit disorder. Proportionately fewer black users suffered comorbid disorders. Proportionately more men had ASPD, whereas more women had PTSD and phobias. Multinominal modeling revealed that black users and users with a high school education were less likely to have comorbid disorders; married users were less likely to have nondependency disorders. White crack users were more likely to have comorbidity, complicating their treatment.

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