Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Commun Disord. 2004 Sep-Oct;37(5):401-11.

A five-phase model for clinical-outcome research.

Author information

  • 1Department of Communication Disorders, University of Virginia, 2205 Fontaine Avenue, Suite 202, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0781, USA.


Through a variety of approaches, speech-language pathologists and audiologists have produced strong evidence that treatments are generally potent. However, we have largely ignored the accepted standards for clinical-outcome testing used throughout the broader research community (e.g., by other clinical disciplines, federal regulators, and third-party payers). Several clinical professions recognize a comprehensive model for organizing and scaffolding the many forms of clinical-outcome research. An adaptation of this five-phase model of clinical-outcome research is examined as a means for structuring forms of clinical research throughout audiology and speech-language pathology. Within the organizing structure, relationships become apparent between types and grades of scientific evidence and the processes underpinning evidence-based practice which ultimately lead to decisions on the status of intervention protocols.


Readers will be able to distinguish the phases of clinical-outcome research in a comprehensive model. Readers will be able to identify relationships between the structure of the model and broadly recognized concepts associated with the terms 'efficacy' and 'effectiveness.' Readers will be able to identify indicators of quality for controlled clinical trials.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

LinkOut - more resources

Full Text Sources

Other Literature Sources

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk