Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Obes Res. 2004 Jun;12(6):921-8.

Control of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 stability and activity by SUMOylation.

Author information

  • 1Louisiana State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.



To determine whether small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO)ylation of lysine 107 plays a role in regulating the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma).


Transient expression of wild-type and K107R-PPARgamma2 in the NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell line was carried out in conjunction with half-life studies, luciferase activity assays, and indirect immunofluorescence localization studies. Additional in vitro analysis was carried out using recombinant SUMOylation pathway proteins along with in vitro transcribed and translated wild-type or K107R-PPARgamma2 to examine the SUMO-1 modification state of wild-type and SUMO-deficient K107R-PPARgamma2.


While examining PPARgamma2 for potential ubiquitylation sites, we identified a strong consensus site for SUMO modification that contains lysine 107. In vitro, SUMOylation studies showed that lysine 107 of PPARgamma2 is a major SUMOylation site and that at least one other SUMOylation site is present in PPARgamma. In addition, our results demonstrated that SUMO-1 affects PPARgamma stability and transcriptional activity but not the nuclear localization of PPARgamma.


These results indicated that SUMOylation plays a role in regulating PPARgamma, both indirectly and directly by modification of lysine 107. Because PPARgamma is regulated in numerous animal models of obesity, understanding the covalent modifications of PPARgamma may enhance our understanding of the metabolic syndrome.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wiley
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk