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J Drug Target. 2004 Apr;12(3):157-64.

Preparation and evaluation of multiple emulsions water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) as delivery system for influenza virus antigens.

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  • 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.


In this study, investigations have been carried out to prepare adjuvant active delivery systems; multiple water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsion formulations, containing influenza virus surface antigen Hemagglutinin (HA). A modified two-stage emulsification method has been used to prepare multiple emulsions. After improving multiple (w/o/w) emulsion formulations; F1: purified antigen solution (PAS)/soybean oil, HCO-40 and span 80/pluronic F-68, F2: PAS and HPbetaCD/soybean oil, HCO-40 and span 80/pluronic F-68, F3: PAS/squalane, HCO-40 and span 80/pluronic F-68, formulations were selected for the stability study that continued for a 3 month duration. To evaluate the stability of these formulations, microscopic observation, osmolarities of the internal and external aqueous phases, pH, globule size and viscosity were determined. SDS-PAGE (silver staining) was used to evaluate HA and the micro-bicinchoninic acid (mBCA) assay was used to determine the in vitro release of antigen from formulations. Immune responses of formulations were investigated in Wistar Albino rats and compared with the immune response raised against the conventional vaccine. These responses were detected with Hemagglutination Inhibition (HAI) assay. The results of this study demonstrated that HA was well entrapped in the multiple (w/o/w) emulsion formulations. Molecular weight and antigenicity of the entrapped HA were not affected by the emulsification procedure. These results suggest that multiple emulsion formulations entrapping influenza antigen may have potential for immunization studies as one of the vaccine delivery system with adjuvant properties.

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