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Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2004 Jul;20(2):287-302, vi-vii.

Altered mentation caused by polioencephalomalacia, hypernatremia, and lead poisoning.

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  • 1Large Animal Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA. christopher.cebra@oregonstate.edu


Polioencephalomalacia in general and the specific disorders associated with lead toxicosis and sodium imbalances all have commonalities in risk groups and clinical presentations but can be differentiated based on herd history, subtle clinical differences, and diagnostic tests. Treatment also has some overlap, but determining the specific etiology enables more specific treatment and more effective prophylactic measures.

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