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Vet Ophthalmol. 2004 Jul-Aug;7(4):245-59.

Secondary glaucomas in the dog in North America.

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  • 1Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, 2015 SW 16th Avenue, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA. gelattk@mail.vetmed.ufl.edu



To determine the prevalence of secondary glaucomas in dogs associated with cataract formation, lens luxation or displacement, cataract surgery, uveitis, hyphema and intraocular neoplasia.


Information was obtained from the Veterinary Medical Data Base (VMDB) from all veterinary medical teaching hospitals in North America from March 1964 to March 2003. Secondary glaucomas were diagnosed at the same examination or after the primary diagnosis was made, and included those associated with cataract formation, lens luxation, cataract surgery, uveitis of unknown cause, hyphema of unknown cause, and intraocular neoplasia. The data were evaluated by decade, breed, gender and age of presentation.


A total of 1 592 831 dogs were presented, and 9695 canine secondary glaucomas. Secondary glaucoma associated with cataract formation represented 81% of all the canine secondary glaucomas. Breeds (n = 7890 dogs) predisposed to secondary glaucoma and cataracts had an overall prevalence of 0.5%, but nearly 20% of all the cataractous dogs developed secondary glaucoma in at least one eye. For the years 1994-2003, these breeds included the American Cocker Spaniel; Boston Terrier; Toy, Miniature and Standard Poodle; English Springer Spaniel; Bichon Frise; and Labrador Retriever. The other forms of secondary glaucoma occurred less frequently, and included those glaucomas with lens luxation or displacement (779 dogs; 12.0%), postcataract surgery (528 dogs; 5.1%), with uveitis from unknown cause (399 dogs; 7.1%), with hyphema from unknown cause (117 dogs; 7.3%), and with intraocular neoplasia (19 dogs; 3.5%). The risk of the secondary glaucomas from 1984 to 2002 was highest after the intracapsular lens extraction (ICLE), less in the extracapsular technique (ECLE), and lowest for the phacoemulsification/phacofragmentation method.


Prevalence of the canine secondary glaucomas ranges from 0.25% (1964-1973), 0.46% (1974-1983), 0.79% (1984-1993), to 0.80% (1994-2003) and are as frequent as the primary or breed-related glaucomas during these same time periods.

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