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J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2004 May-Jun;33(3):298-305.

Smoking cessation counseling for pregnant women who smoke: scientific basis for practice for AWHONN's SUCCESS project.

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  • 1School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.



To review the literature addressing smoking cessation in pregnant women. To develop the project protocol for the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurse's (AWHONN) 6th research-based practice project titled "Setting Universal Cessation Counseling, Education and Screening Standards (SUCCESS): Nursing Care of Pregnant Women Who Smoke." To evaluate the potential of systematic integration of this protocol in primary care settings in which women seek care at the preconception, pregnant, or postpartum stages.


Computerized searches in MEDLINE and CINAHL, as well as references cited in articles reviewed. Key concepts in the searches included low-birth-weight infants and effects of prenatal smoking on the infant and the effects of preconception and prenatal smoking cessation intervention on premature labor and birth weight.


Comprehensive articles, reports, and guidelines relevant to key concepts and published after 1964 with an emphasis on new findings from 1996 through 2002. Ninety-eight citations were identified as useful to this review.


Tobacco use among pregnant women and children's exposure to tobacco use (secondhand smoke) are associated with pregnancy complications such as placental dysfunction (including previa or abruption), preterm labor, premature rupture of membranes, spontaneous abortions, and decreased birth weight and infant stature. Neonates and children who are exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk for developing otitis media, asthma, other respiratory disorders later in childhood; dying from sudden infant death syndrome; and learning disorders. The "5 A's" intervention and use of descriptive statements for smoking status assessment were synthesized into the SUCCESS project protocol for AWHONN's 6th research-based practice project.


The literature review generated evidence that brief, office-based assessment, client-specific tobacco counseling, skill development, and support programs serve as an effective practice guideline for clinicians. Implementation and evaluation of the guideline is under way at a total of 13 sites in the United States and Canada.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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