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Lancet Infect Dis. 2004 Jun;4(6):368-75.

Vulnerability to malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS infection and disease. Part II: Determinants operating at environmental and institutional level.

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  • 1University of Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.


This review summarises a wide range of evidence about environmental and institutional factors that influence vulnerability to malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV infection. By combining this information with that obtained on factors operating at individual, household, and community level, we have identified potential common strategies for improving resilience to all three diseases simultaneously. These strategies depend on collaborations with non-health sectors and include progress in rapid access to funds, provision of education about disease transmission and management, reduction of the burden on carers (predominantly women), and improvement in the quality of health services.

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