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Brain Res Bull. 2004 Feb 1;62(5):425-33.

Neuroprotective effect of 4-amino-1,8-napthalimide, a poly(ADP ribose) polymerase inhibitor in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rat.

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  • 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector 67, SAS Nagar Mohali, Punjab 160 062, India.


In the present study, neuroprotective effect of 4-amino-1,8-napthalimide (4-ANI), a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor was investigated in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)-induced focal ischemia. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 22 h of reperfusion. After 22 h of reperfusion rats were evaluated for cerebral infarction, neurological deficits, brain NAD levels, and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL). Focal ischemia produced significant infarct volume (201 +/- 14 mm3), neurological scores (2 +/- 0.5) and 28 +/- 4.5% brain NAD depletion. Ischemia was associated with increased in TUNEL positive cells in brain sections indicating DNA fragmentation. 4-ANI treatment (1 and 3 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased infarct volume to 35 +/- 7% and 70 +/- 6%, respectively. Neurological functions were also significantly improved at these doses. 4-ANI (3 mg/kg) completely reversed brain NAD depletion and significantly reduced the increase in the number of TUNEL positive cells. Nevertheless, 4-ANI treatment did not alter cerebral blood flow and blood pressure. Our study suggests 4-ANI is a potent neuroprotective agent in focal cerebral ischemia and its neuroprotective effects may be attributed to reduction of NAD depletion and DNA fragmentation.

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