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Mol Cell. 2004 May 21;14(4):416-8.

FoxO: linking new signaling pathways.

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  • 1Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and University of California San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA.


Two recent reports reveal new roles for FoxO proteins in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Seoane and colleagues show that FoxO proteins play key roles in the TGFbeta-dependent activation of p21Cip1 by partnering with Smad3 and Smad4. FoxG1, a protein from a distinct Fox subfamily, binds FoxO/Smad complexes and blocks p21Cip1 expression. These interactions establish a relationship between the PI3K pathway, FoxG1, and the TGFbeta/Smad pathways. The second report identifies IkappaB kinase as a negative regulator of FoxO proteins, suggesting a mechanism for relieving negative regulation of cell cycle and promoting tumor cell proliferation.

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