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J Intern Med. 2004 Jun;255(6):645-52.

Coffee consumption, type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in Swedish men and women.

Author information

  • 1Department of Molecular Medicine, Endocrine and Diabetes Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. emilie.agardh@ks.se

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The association between coffee consumption, type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance was examined. In addition, indicators of insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function according to homeostasis model assessment were studied in relation to coffee consumption.

DESIGN:

Population-based cross-sectional study.

SETTING AND SUBJECTS:

The study comprised 7949 healthy Swedish subjects aged 35-56 years residing within five municipalities of Stockholm. An oral glucose tolerance test identified 55 men and 52 women with previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes and 172 men and 167 women with impaired glucose tolerance. Information about coffee consumption and other factors was obtained by questionnaire.

RESULTS:

The relative risks (adjusted for potential confounders) of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance when drinking >/=5 cups of coffee per day compared with </=2 cups per day in men were 0.45 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.22-0.92] and 0.63 (CI: 0.41-0.97), respectively, and in women 0.27 (CI: 0.11-0.66) and 0.47 (CI: 0.29-0.76) respectively. In subjects with type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance, high coffee consumption (>/=5 cups day(-1)) was inversely associated with insulin resistance. In addition, in those with type 2 diabetes and in women (not in men) with impaired glucose tolerance high coffee consumption was inversely associated with low beta-cell function. In women, but not obviously in men, with normal glucose tolerance, coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of insulin resistance.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results of this study indicated that high consumers of coffee have a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. The beneficial effects may involve both improved insulin sensitivity and enhanced insulin response.

PMID:
15147528
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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