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Semin Roentgenol. 2004 Apr;39(2):304-22.

Congenital abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system: perinatal evaluation and long-term outcome.

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  • 1Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, CB #7510, Chapel Hill, NC 27514-7510, USA.


Many musculoskeletal malformations can be detected by prenatal US. Whether isolated or part of a syndrome, these anomalies can have a significant impact on the entire life of the individual. Nonfatal conditions may be subtle and become more recognizable in the second and third trimester. After delivery, radiography helps confirm the diagnosis. US, CT, and MRI all have a role in imaging the primary abnormality, the follow-up effects of treatment, and in monitoring for potential complications that may develop over time. Three-dimensional imaging has an increasing role, in US, CT, and MRI, both in the prenatal and postnatal periods.

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