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J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jun;92(2-3):147-62.

Galanthamine from snowdrop--the development of a modern drug against Alzheimer's disease from local Caucasian knowledge.

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  • 1Centre for Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, The School of Pharmacy, University of London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK.


In recent years, galanthamine isolated from several members of the Amaryllidaceae (Leucojum spp., Narcissus species, Galanthus spp.) has become an important therapeutic options used to slow down the process of neurological degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. This review traces aspects of the history of its development from little known observational studies in the Caucasus Mountains (Southern Russia), to the use of this drug in Eastern European countries (esp. Bulgaria) in the treatment of poliomyelitis and ultimately to the recent introduction onto Western markets in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Of note, little is known about the early history of the drug's development and the review also points to other gaps in our knowledge about the ethnopharmacology, pharmacology and clinical use of galanthamine.

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