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J Am Chem Soc. 2004 May 12;126(18):5750-62.

Evidence for specific solvation of two halocarbene amides.

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  • 1Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, 100 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.


Laser flash photolysis (LFP, 308 nm) of endo-10-halo-10'-N,N-dimethylcarboxamidetricyclo[]-deca-2,4-diene (1Cl and 1F) releases indan and halocarbene amide (2Cl and 2F). Although the carbenes are not UV-vis active, they react rapidly with pyridine to form ylides (4Cl, 4F), which are readily detected in LFP experiments (lambda(max) = 450 nm). Dioxane decreases the observed rate of carbene reaction with pyridine in CF(2)ClCFCl(2). Small amounts of THF decrease the observed rate of reaction of carbene 2F with pyridine but increase the rate of reaction of carbene 2Cl with pyridine. LFP (266 nm) of dienes 1Cl and 1F in CF(2)ClCFCl(2) with IR detection produces carbenes 2Cl and 2F with carbonyl vibrations at 1635 and 1650 cm(-1), respectively. In dioxane or THF solvent, LFP produces the corresponding ether ylides (5Cl, 5F) by capture of carbenes 2Cl and 2F. The ylides have broad carbonyl vibrations between 1560 and 1610 cm(-1). The addition of a small amount of dioxane in CFCl(2)CF(2)Cl extends the lifetime of the carbene. This observation, together with the ether-induced retardation of the rates of carbene capture by tetramethylethylene and pyridine, is evidence for solvation of the carbene by dioxane.

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