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Manag Care Interface. 2004 Apr;17(4):61-6.

The cost of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its effects on managed care.

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  • 1Lovelace Clinic Foundation, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) designates respiratory disorders characterized by airway obstruction that is not fully reversible. An estimated 10 million adult Americans have COPD, and the prevalence is rising. Direct and indirect costs of managing COPD exceed dollars 32 billion annually, and this health care burden has provoked vigorous efforts by major public health organizations to evaluate and improve quality of care for COPD. The authors review the substantial effects of COPD on managed care and discuss evidence-based strategies for its effective management.

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