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Anesth Analg. 2004 May;98(5):1426-31, table of contents.

A comparison of epinephrine and vasopressin in a porcine model of cardiac arrest after rapid intravenous injection of bupivacaine.

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  • 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Leopold-Franzens-University, Innsbruck, Austria. viktoria.mayr@uibk.ac.at

Abstract

In a porcine model, we compared the efficacy of epinephrine, vasopressin, or the combination of epinephrine and vasopressin with that of saline placebo on the survival rate after bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest. After the administration of 5 mg/kg of a 0.5% bupivacaine solution i.v., ventilation was interrupted for 3 +/- 1 min (mean +/- SD) until asystole occurred. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was initiated after 1 min of cardiac arrest. After 2 min of CPR, 28 animals received, every 5 min, epinephrine; vasopressin; epinephrine combined with vasopressin; or placebo i.v.. Three minutes after each drug administration, up to 3 countershocks (3, 4, and 6 J/kg) were administered; all subsequent shocks were 6 J/kg. Blood was drawn throughout the experiment for the determination of plasma bupivacaine concentration. In the vasopressin/epinephrine combination group, all pigs survived (P < 0.01 versus placebo); in the vasopressin group 5 of 7, in the epinephrine group 4 of 7, and in the placebo group none of 7 swine survived. The plasma concentration of total bupivacaine showed no significant difference among groups. In this model of bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest, CPR with a combination of vasopressin and epinephrine resulted in significantly better survival rates than in the placebo group.

IMPLICATIONS:

Although cardiovascular collapse occurs mostly immediately after rapid injection of a local anesthetic in the presence of anesthesiologists, resuscitation may be difficult, and the outcome is usually poor. In this model of bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation with a combination of vasopressin and epinephrine resulted in significantly better survival rates than in the placebo group.

PMID:
15105225
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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