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Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Oct;287(4):E591-601. Epub 2004 Apr 20.

IGF-I stimulates muscle growth by suppressing protein breakdown and expression of atrophy-related ubiquitin ligases, atrogin-1 and MuRF1.

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  • 1Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA 02115, USA.
  • 2Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA

Abstract

Muscle atrophy results primarily from accelerated protein degradation and is associated with increased expression of two muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases (E3s): atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1). Glucocorticoids are essential for many types of muscle atrophy, and their effects are opposite to those of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin, which promote growth. In myotubes, dexamethasone (Dex) inhibited growth and enhanced breakdown of long-lived cell proteins, especially myofibrillar proteins (as measured by 3-methylhistidine release), while also increasing atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA. Conversely, IGF-I suppressed protein degradation and prevented the Dex-induced increase in proteolysis. IGF-I rapidly reduced atrogin-1 expression within 1 h by blocking mRNA synthesis without affecting mRNA degradation, whereas IGF-I decreased MuRF1 mRNA slowly. IGF-I and insulin also blocked Dex induction of these E3s and several other atrophy-related genes ("atrogenes"). Changes in overall proteolysis with Dex and IGF-I correlated tightly with changes in atrogin-1 mRNA content, but not with changes in MuRF1 mRNA. IGF-I activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway, and inhibition of this pathway [but not the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) or the MEK-ERK pathway] increased proteolysis and atrogin-1 mRNA expression. Thus an important component of growth stimulation by IGF-I, through the PI3K-Akt pathway, is its ability to rapidly suppress transcription of the atrophy-related E3 atrogin-1 and other atrogenes and degradation of myofibrillar proteins.

PMID:
15100091
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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