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Science. 1992 Aug 21;257(5073):1050-5.

Epidemiology of drug resistance: implications for a post-antimicrobial era.

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  • 1Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333.


In the last several years, the frequency and spectrum of antimicrobial-resistant infections have increased in both the hospital and the community. Certain infections that are essentially untreatable have begun to occur as epidemics both in the developing world and in institutional settings in the United States. The increasing frequency of drug resistance has been attributed to combinations of microbial characteristics, selective pressures of antimicrobial use, and societal and technologic changes that enhance the transmission of drug-resistant organisms. Antimicrobial resistance is resulting in increased morbidity, mortality, and health-care costs. Prevention and control of these infections will require new antimicrobial agents, prudent use of existing agents, new vaccines, and enhanced public health efforts to reduce transmission.

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