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Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004 Apr;85(4 Suppl 2):S43-53.

Relationship between depression and psychosocial functioning after traumatic brain injury.

Author information

  • 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA. mary.hibbard@mssm.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the relationship between depression and psychosocial functioning up to 5 years after traumatic brain injury (TBI).

DESIGN:

Longitudinal cohort study with 2 assessments completed.

SETTING:

Community.

PARTICIPANTS:

Individuals (N=188) with TBI living in the community.

INTERVENTIONS:

Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Structured Clinical Interview for Depression, self-reports of depression severity, functional symptoms, quality of life (QOL), unmet important needs, and psychosocial functioning.

RESULTS:

Based on observed depression patterns at initial and repeat assessment, 4 subgroups were created: no depression, resolved depression, late-onset depression, and chronic depression. Groups were equivalent in terms of demographic and injury-related factors but differed significantly in perceived psychosocial functioning. The no-depression group reported fewer depressive symptoms and higher levels of psychosocial functioning, whereas the chronic-depression group reported the poorest psychosocial functioning, with a further decline in QOL at reassessment. Although the resolved-depression and late-onset-depression groups reported similar psychosocial functioning at initial assessment, psychosocial functioning had improved for the resolved-depression group and declined for the late-onset-depression group at reassessment. Pre- and postpsychiatric diagnoses were common in all groups, with pre-TBI diagnosis of depression not predictive of post-TBI depression.

CONCLUSIONS:

Findings highlight the need for broad-based assessments and timely interventions for both mood and psychosocial challenges after TBI.

PMID:
15083421
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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