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J Biol Chem. 2004 Jun 11;279(24):25665-72. Epub 2004 Apr 5.

Regulated exocytosis contributes to protein kinase C potentiation of vanilloid receptor activity.

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  • 1Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Avenida del Ferrocarril s/n, 03202 Elche (Alicante), Spain.


The vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1) plays a key role in the perception of peripheral thermal and inflammatory pain. TRPV1 expression and channel activity are notably up-regulated by proalgesic agents. The transduction pathways involved in TRPV1 sensitization are still elusive. We have used a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify proteins that associate with the N terminus of TRPV1. We report that two vesicular proteins, Snapin and synaptotagmin IX (Syt IX), strongly interact in vitro and in vivo with the TRPV1 N-terminal domain. In primary dorsal root ganglion neurons, TRPV1 co-distributes in vesicles with Syt IX and the vesicular protein synaptobrevin. Neither Snapin nor Syt IX affected channel function, but they notably inhibited protein kinase C (PKC)-induced potentiation of TRPV1 channel activity with a potency that rivaled the blockade evoked by botulinum neurotoxin A, a potent blocker of neuronal exocytosis. Noteworthily, we found that PKC activation induced a rapid delivery of functional TRPV1 channels to the plasma membrane. Botulinum neurotoxin A blocked the TRPV1 membrane translocation induced by PKC that was activated with a phorbol ester or the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5. Therefore, our results indicate that PKC signaling promotes at least in part the SNARE-dependent exocytosis of TRPV1 to the cell surface. Taken together, these findings imply that activity-dependent delivery of channels to the neuronal surface may contribute to the buildup and maintenance of thermal inflammatory hyperalgesia in peripheral nociceptor terminals.

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