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Radiother Oncol. 2004 Apr;71(1):29-33.

Monotherapy for stage T1-T2 prostate cancer: radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, or permanent seed implantation.

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  • 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center at Mercy Medical Center, Rockville Centre, NY, USA.



To review the freedom from biochemical recurrence (FBR) rates after permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB), external beam radiotherapy (RT) to a minimum 70Gy, or radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinically localized stage T1-T2 adenocarcinoma of the prostate.


The study cohort consisted of 1819 consecutively treated clinical stage T1-T2 (AJCC 1997) localized prostate cancer patients between 1992 and 1998. All patients received monotherapy treatment without additional adjuvant therapy. The distribution by treatment modality was as follows: RT for 340, RP for 746, and PPB for 733 cases. The median follow-up time was 58 months for all cases (51 months for PPB cases, 56 months for RT cases, and 64 months for RP cases). Biochemical relapse was defined as to be detectable PSA levels in RP cases, and the ASTRO consensus panel definition for the RT and PPB cases.


The 7-year FBR rates for PPB vs EBRT vs RP were 74, 77, and 79%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified iPSA (P < 0.001) and bGS (P < 0.001) as independent predictors of relapse. Treatment modality, age, clinical T-stage, and race were not independent predictors of failure.


Pretreatment PSA levels, and biopsy Gleason score determined outcome in this study cohort. Biochemical failure rates in this study cohort are similar between PPB, RT, and RP as monotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer.

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