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J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004 Apr;72(2):139-54.

A multiple motives approach to tobacco dependence: the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68).

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  • 1Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI 53711-2027, USA.


The dependence construct fills an important explanatory role in motivational accounts of smoking and relapse. Frequently used measures of dependence are either atheoretical or grounded in a unidimensional model of physical dependence. This research creates a multidimensional measure of dependence that is based on theoretically grounded motives for drug use and is intended to reflect mechanisms underlying dependence. Data collected from a large sample of smokers (N = 775) indicated that all 13 subscales of the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68) have acceptable internal consistency, are differentially present across levels of smoking heaviness, and have a multidimensional structure. Validity analyses indicated the WISDM-68 subscales are significantly related to dependence criteria such as smoking heaviness and to 4th edition Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders symptoms of dependence and relapse.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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