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Eur Respir J. 2004 Mar;23(3):363-8.

Additive preventive effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in elderly persons.

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  • 1Dept of Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Stockholm County, Sweden.


In 1999, all individuals > or = 65 yrs of age (n=258,754) in Stockholm County, Sweden, were offered influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in a prospective study on the effectiveness of these vaccines in reducing the need for hospital treatment and death due to influenza, pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Data on hospitalisation and mortality during 1 yr were obtained from the administrative database in Stockholm County Council. Vaccination was performed in 124,702 (48%) subjects; 72,107 had both vaccines, 29,346 only had the influenza vaccine and 23,249 only had the pneumococcal vaccine. Compared with the unvaccinated cohort, a lower incidence of hospitalisation for all endpoint diagnoses was seen in vaccinated persons. An additive effectiveness of vaccination was seen when both vaccines were given, with a reduction of hospital admissions for influenza (37%), pneumonia (29%) and IPD (44%). In-hospital mortality for pneumonia was significantly lower in those who received both vaccines, than in unvaccinated persons. To conclude, vaccination with influenza and pneumococcal vaccines together was effective in reducing the need for hospital admission for influenza and pneumonia. There was a strong indication that pneumococcal vaccination alone, was effective not only in the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease, but also of pneumonia overall, although to a low degree.

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