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Am J Ophthalmol. 2004 Apr;137(4):704-18.

A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa.

Author information

  • 1Retina Foundation of the Southwest, Dallas, Texas 75231, USA. dhoffman@retinafoundation.org

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) may influence retinal function. The goals of this study were to elevate blood DHA levels and determine the effect on the rate of disease progression.

DESIGN:

In a 4-year prospective randomized clinical trial, male patients with XLRP (mean age = 16 years; range = 4-38 years) received DHA (400 mg/d; n = 23; +DHA group) or placebo (n = 21) capsules.

METHODS:

Red blood cell (RBC)-DHA concentrations were assessed every 6 months. Full-field cone electroretinograms (ERGs; the primary outcome measure), visual acuity, dark-adaptation, visual fields, rod ERGs, and fundus photos were recorded annually.

RESULTS:

In the +DHA group, RBC-DHA increased 2.5-fold over placebo levels (70 vs 28 mg DHA/l). Repeated measures analysis of variance for cone ERG showed a significant main effect of year (P <.0001) but not of group (P =.16). Preservation of cone ERG function correlated with RBC-DHA (P =.018), and there was less change in fundus appearance in the +DHA group (P =.04). Neither visual acuity nor visual fields were changed. In subset analysis, DHA supplementation was beneficial in reducing rod ERG functional loss in patients aged <12 years (P =.040) and preserving cone ERG function in patients > or =12 years (P =.038).

CONCLUSIONS:

Although DHA-supplemented patients had significantly elevated mean RBC-DHA levels, the rate of cone ERG functional loss was not significantly different between groups. Supplemental analyses provided evidence for a DHA benefit and a direction for subsequent investigations.

PMID:
15059710
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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