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Anal Chem. 2004 Apr 1;76(7):1824-31.

Self-contained, fully integrated biochip for sample preparation, polymerase chain reaction amplification, and DNA microarray detection.

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  • 1Microfluidics Laboratory, Motorola Labs, Tempe, AZ 85284, USA.


A fully integrated biochip device that consists of microfluidic mixers, valves, pumps, channels, chambers, heaters, and DNA microarray sensors was developed to perform DNA analysis of complex biological sample solutions. Sample preparation (including magnetic bead-based cell capture, cell preconcentration and purification, and cell lysis), polymerase chain reaction, DNA hybridization, and electrochemical detection were performed in this fully automated and miniature device. Cavitation microstreaming was implemented to enhance target cell capture from whole blood samples using immunomagnetic beads and accelerate DNA hybridization reaction. Thermally actuated paraffin-based microvalves were developed to regulate flows. Electrochemical pumps and thermopneumatic pumps were integrated on the chip to provide pumping of liquid solutions. The device is completely self-contained: no external pressure sources, fluid storage, mechanical pumps, or valves are necessary for fluid manipulation, thus eliminating possible sample contamination and simplifying device operation. Pathogenic bacteria detection from approximately milliliters of whole blood samples and single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis directly from diluted blood were demonstrated. The device provides a cost-effective solution to direct sample-to-answer genetic analysis and thus has a potential impact in the fields of point-of-care genetic analysis, environmental testing, and biological warfare agent detection.

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