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Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Apr;79(4):582-92.

Diet and risk of ischemic heart disease in India.

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  • 1Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA. trastogi@post.harvard.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a leading cause of death in India. Dietary changes could reduce risk, but few studies have addressed the association between diet and IHD risk in India.

OBJECTIVE:

The goal was to address the association between diet and IHD risk among Indians in New Delhi (northern India) and Bangalore (southern India).

DESIGN:

We collected data from 350 cases of acute myocardial infarction and 700 controls matched on the basis of age, sex, and hospital as part of a hospital-based case-control study in 8 hospitals. Long-term dietary intake was assessed by using food-frequency questionnaires developed for New Delhi and Bangalore. We used conditional logistic regression to control for the matching factors and other predictors of risk.

RESULTS:

We observed a significant and dose-dependent inverse association between vegetable intake and IHD risk. The inverse association was stronger for green leafy vegetables; in multivariate analysis, persons consuming a median of 3.5 servings/wk had a 67% lower relative risk (RR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.17, 0.64; P for trend = 0.0001) than did those consuming 0.5 servings/wk. Controlling for other dietary covariates did not alter the association. Cereal intake was also associated with a lower risk. Use of mustard oil, which is rich in alpha-linolenic acid, was associated with a lower risk than was use of sunflower oil [for use in cooking: RR: 0.49 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.99); for use in frying, RR: 0.29 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.64)].

CONCLUSION:

Diets rich in vegetables and use of mustard oil could contribute to the lower risk of IHD among Indians.

Comment in

PMID:
15051601
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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