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Addict Behav. 2004 May;29(3):607-14.

Is alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use as well as polydrug use increasing in France?

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  • 1National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), U 472, 12 avenue Paul Vaillant Couturier, Villejuif 94807, France.


Two school surveys measured the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis among French adolescents (7-12th grades), one in 1993 (N=8435, 48.8% males), another in 1999 (N=11,331, 47.9% males). Increase in all substance use and polydrug use was observed (total sample, by gender and by age). The increase was important (1) for lifetime consumption of cannabis, "tobacco+cannabis," "alcohol+tobacco" and "alcohol+tobacco+cannabis" (OR=3.0); (2) for regular consumption of cannabis and "tobacco+cannabis" (OR=3.0); (3) among girls; (4) among youngsters aged 15 and more. In summary, these patterns of increase were quite different from those we expected for France, a wet and masculine culture.

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