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Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Mar 15;10(6):1901-10.

Transendothelial migration of myeloma cells is increased by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha via TNF receptor 2 and autocrine up-regulation of MCP-1.

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  • 1Tyrolean Cancer Research Institute at the University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Abstract

The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha has been shown to facilitate leukocyte transendothelial migration. In multiple myeloma, TNF-alpha is an important factor in the promotion of growth and survival of the malignant cells. Studies have shown that enhanced TNF-alpha levels in myeloma patients correlated with aggressive disease. Therefore, we investigated the effect of recombinant human TNF-alpha on the migrational behavior of myeloma cells across the physiological barrier of the major disease compartment, i.e., human bone marrow endothelial cells. In the presence of TNF-alpha, we observed significantly increased migration both in established myeloma cell lines and in plasma cells from myeloma patients. Expression of TNF-receptor 2 (TNF-R2) but not TNF-receptor 1 (TNF-R1) was detected in myeloma cell lines. Myeloma cells of patients also showed expression of TNF-R2 but not TNF-R1. The effect of TNF-alpha could not be explained by altered expression of adhesion molecules or metalloproteases. Instead, we found an up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and confirmed that myeloma cells express the relevant receptor C-C chemokine receptor 2. Preincubation of myeloma cells with recombinant human MCP-1 also enhanced cell migration, and this effect, as well as the effect of TNF-alpha, was abolished by treatment with anti-MCP-1 antibody. In contrast, migration of myeloma cells in the direction of an MCP-1 gradient, i.e., chemotaxis, could not be observed in the cell lines investigated. Additionally, the mRNA level of TNF-alpha was up-regulated by the cytokine treatment, which points to an autocrine loop augmenting and/or stabilizing the TNF-alpha-MCP-1 pathway. In summary, our data clearly support additional investigations using anti-MCP-1 antibodies in myeloma progression.

PMID:
15041705
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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