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Theriogenology. 2004 Apr 15;61(6):1125-35.

In vitro development of preimplantation porcine nuclear transfer embryos cultured in different media and gas atmospheres.

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  • 1Department of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of culture media and gas atmospheres on the development of porcine nuclear transfer embryos. Oocytes derived from a local abattoir were matured for 42-44 h and enucleated. Fetal fibroblasts were prepared from a Day 35 porcine fetus. Confluent stage fetal fibroblasts were introduced into the perivitelline space of enucleated oocytes. Fusion and activation were induced simultaneously with two direct current (1.2 kV/cm for 30 micros) in 0.3 M mannitol medium. For parthenogenetic activation, the same pulses were used. In Experiment 1, parthenogenetically activated oocytes were cultured in North Carolina State University-23 (NCSU-23), Porcine Zygote Medium-3 (PZM-3), or Beltsville Embryo Culture Medium-3 (BECM-3). Parthenogenetically activated oocytes cultured in PZM-3 had a higher (P < 0.05) developmental rate to the blastocyst stage (15.2% versus 3.7-9.6%) as compared to BECM-3 or NCSU-23. The number of nuclei in Day 6 blastocysts was higher (P < 0.05) in PZM-3 (23.6) and NCSU-23 (21.4) than BECM-3 (14.2). In Experiment 2, parthenogenetically activated oocytes were cultured in NCSU-23 under a gas atmosphere of 5% CO(2) in air for 6 days (T1), 5% CO(2), 5% O(2), 90% N(2) for 6 days (T2), 5% CO(2) in air for 3 days, then 5% CO(2), 5% O(2), 90% N(2) for 3 days (T3), or 5% CO(2), 5% O(2), 90% N(2) for 3 days, then 5% CO(2) in air for 3 days (T4). Blastocyst formation rates were not different among treatments (12.9 =/-3.6 %, 13.5 +/- 4.2%, 10.8+/-2.4%, and 12.6+/-2.7%, respectively). However, T2 (36.7+/-2.9) and T3 (33.8+/-3.0) resulted in more nuclei per blastocyst than T1 (23.2+/-2.1) or T4 (26.0+/-2.1 ). In Experiment 3, reconstructed porcine nuclear transfer (NT) embryos were cultured in NCSU-23 or PZM-3 under a gas atmosphere of 5% CO(2) in air or 5% CO(2), 5% O(2), 90% N(2). Developmental rates to blastocyst stage for porcine NT embryos cultured in NCSU-23 under a gas atmosphere of 5% CO(2) in air or 5% CO(2), 5% O(2), 90% N(2) were 7.2+/-1.4% and 12.3+/-1.4%, and the number of nuclei was 12.2=/-0.8% and 19.4+/-1.0, respectively. NT embryos cultured in PZM-3 under a gas atmosphere of 5% CO(2) in air or 5% CO(2), 5% O(2), 90% N(2) had developmental rates to blastocyst stage of 18.8+/-1.9 %, and 17.8+/-3.8% the nuclei number was 20.9 +/- 1.9 and 21.9+/-3.3, respectively. NT embryos cultured in NCSU-23 had a higher developmental rate to the blastocyst stage in 5% CO(2), 5% O(2), 90% N(2) than in 5% CO(2) in air (P < 0.05). Regardless of gas atmospheres, NT embryos cultured in PZM-3 had a higher developmental rate (18.3 =/- 1.7% versus 16.9 +/- 1.2%) and nuclei number (21.4 +/-1.8 versus 16.9 +/- 1.2) than in NCSU-23 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, a gas atmosphere of 5% CO(2), 5% O(2), 90% N(2) supported a higher development rate of porcine NT embryos than 5% CO(2) in air when the porcine NT embryos were cultured in NCSU-23. Furthermore, regardless of atmosphere, PZM-3 supported a higher development rate of porcine nuclear transfer embryos than NCSU-23.

PMID:
15037000
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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