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Ann Epidemiol. 2004 Mar;14(3):222-8.

History of kidney stones as a possible risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

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  • 1National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA. vupputu1@niehs.nih.gov



The incidence of treated end-stage renal disease has increased progressively in the United States over the past several decades. It has been suggested that kidney stones may be a contributing factor for a small percentage of these patients.


We conducted a case-control study utilizing 548 hospital cases and 514 age, race and gender-matched community controls. The main outcome measure was diagnosis of chronic kidney disease, assessed by comprehensive chart review. History of kidney stones and other co-variables were obtained during telephone interviews.


This study revealed 16.8% of cases and 6.4% of controls with reported history of kidney stones. The odds ratios (adjusted for confounding variables) for chronic kidney disease (overall), diabetic nephropathy and interstitial nephritis for patients with kidney stones were 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.3), 2.5 (95% CI: 0.87, 7.0) and 3.4 (95% CI: 1.5, 7.4), respectively. After stratifying by hypertensive status this increased risk persisted only for study participants reporting no history of hypertension.


Kidney stones may play a role in the development of chronic kidney disease. Our study suggests that the prevention of kidney stones may be a means of delaying the onset of chronic kidney disease, however, further studies are needed to make conclusive recommendations.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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