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Tsitologiia. 2003;45(12):1227-33.

Initial steps of infection of the ciliate Paramecium with bacteria Holospora sp.

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  • 1Biological Research Institute, St. Petersburg State University.


New light and electron microscope data on the initial steps of endocytobiosis establishment between the ciliate Paramecium and specific intranuclear bacteria Holospora are provided. At the cytoplasmic step of infection bacteria of all Holospora species are found in a vesicle originating from the membrane of the host cell phagosome. The association between host cell microfilaments and the bacterium bearing vesicle may suggest a possible involvement of the ciliate cytoskeleton in the transportation of bacteria to the host cell nucleus. The authors subdivide the process of infection into 6 steps. Some strains of P. caudatum never take up infectious Holospora bacteria in the course of phagocytosis.

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