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J Neurosci. 2004 Mar 10;24(10):2475-80.

Noradrenaline and dopamine efflux in the prefrontal cortex in relation to appetitive classical conditioning.

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  • 1Netherlands Institute for Brain Research, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


We trained rats to learn that an auditory stimulus predicted delivery of reward pellets in the Skinner box. After 2 d of training, we measured changes in efflux of noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) in the medial prefrontal cortex using microdialysis on the third day. Animals were subjected to a normal rewarded session and an extinction session, in which the auditory stimulus was presented alone. In the rewarded session, both NA and DA efflux were increased, but in extinction, only NA was activated. The data suggest that NA has a role in the reaction to reward-predicting stimuli, which complements that of DA.

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