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Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Mar 1;10(5):1853-9.

Interleukin 1beta enhances invasive ability of gastric carcinoma through nuclear factor-kappaB activation.

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  • 1Departments of Cancer Therapy and Research, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.



We examined the role of interleukin (IL)-1beta in activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and the biological function of activated NF-kappaB in gastric carcinoma cells.


Human gastric carcinoma cell line GCTM-1 was used to examine NF-kappaB activation by immunostaining and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression, which plays an important role in tumor invasion, was assessed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR, Western blotting, and immunostaining. The invasive ability of GCTM-1 cells was measured by Matrigel invasion assay. In vivo expression of IL-1beta and MMP-9 and activation of NF-kappaB in 10 surgically resected gastric carcinoma specimens were examined immunohistochemically.


IL-1beta enhanced NF-kappaB activation, MMP-9 expression, and the invasive ability of GCTM-1. A NF-kappaB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, suppressed both MMP-9 expression and invasiveness of IL-1beta-treated GCTM-1 cells. IL-1beta did not increase the invasive ability of GCTM-1 cells transfected with MMP-9 antisense oligonucleotide. Concomitant expression of IL-1beta and nuclear NF-kappaB was observed in 3 of 10 gastric carcinoma specimens. Cells producing IL-1beta were tumor-infiltrating macrophages in two specimens and gastric carcinoma cells in one specimen.


One of the molecules that may play a role in NF-kappaB activation in some gastric carcinomas is IL-1beta. The present results suggest that IL-1beta increases the invasive ability of carcinoma cells through activation of NF-kappaB and the resulting MMP-9 expression.

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