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J Abnorm Psychol. 1992 Aug;101(3):398-404.

Increases in depressive symptomatology in the rural elderly: results from a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

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  • 1Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, University of Iowa.


Depressive symptomatology was examined in a large sample of noninstitutionalized older adults using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Both cross-sectional and longitudinal data showed age-related increases in mean CES-D scores and increases in the percentage of respondents scoring at or above the cutoff score of 16. Variables collected at baseline in the longitudinal study from 2,032 participants 65 years of age and older were significant predictors of depressive symptomatology 3 and 6 years later. Baseline CES-D scores accounted for the largest proportion of the variance.

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