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Leukemia. 2004 May;18(5):989-97.

Addition of cladribine to daunorubicin and cytarabine increases complete remission rate after a single course of induction treatment in acute myeloid leukemia. Multicenter, phase III study.

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  • 1University Department of Haematology and BMT, Silesian Medical University, Katowice, Poland.


To assess the efficacy of an original DAC-7 regimen: daunorubicine (DNR) 60 mg/m2/day, days 1-3; cytarabine (AraC) 200 mg/m2/day, days 1-7; cladribine (2-CdA) 5 mg/m2/day, days 1-5, 400 untreated adult acute myeloid leukemia patients (including 63 with preceding myelodysplastic syndrome), aged 45 (16-60) years were randomized to either DAC-7 (n=200) or DA-7 (without 2-CdA, n=200). The overall CR rate equaled 72% for DAC-7 and 69% for DA-7 arm (P=NS). After a single course of DAC-7 induction, the CR rate equaled 64% and was significantly higher compared to 47% in the DA-7 arm (P=0.0009). Median hospitalization time during the induction was 7 days shorter for DAC-7 compared to the DA-7 group (33 vs 40 days, P=0.002). Toxicity was comparable in both groups. The probability of 3-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) for DAC-7 and DA-7 group equaled 43 and 34%, respectively (P=NS). There was a trend toward higher LFS rate for patients aged >40 years receiving DAC-7 compared with DA-7 regimen (44 vs 28%, P=0.05). This study proves that addition of 2-CdA increases antileukemic potency of DNR+AraC regimen, thus resulting in a higher CR rate after one induction cycle when compared to DA-7, without additional toxicity. It shortens hospitalization time and may improve long-term survival in patients aged >40 years.

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