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J Periodontol. 2003 Dec;74(12):1754-63.

Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors decrease interleukin-1beta-stimulated prostaglandin E2 and IL-6 production by human gingival fibroblasts.

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  • 1Department of Periodontology, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, College of Dentistry, Memphis, TN 38163, USA.



Previous work showed that normal and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) gingival fibroblasts produce the bone-resorbing cytokine IL-6. PGE2 is important in regulating IL-6 production. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit PG synthesis via COX-1 and/or COX-2 isoenzymes and may inhibit periodontal destruction. COX-2 is induced after cellular activation (i.e., by inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta). Little is known about IL-1beta-stimulated AgP fibroblast IL-6 and PGE2 production and their regulation by COX inhibitors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of COX-2 inhibitors on amounts of PGE2 and IL-6 made by IL-1beta-stimulated gingival fibroblasts.


Gingival fibroblasts (2.5 x 10(4)) from healthy or severe periodontitis patients were cultured in serum-free medium, with or without IL-1beta (10(-11)M) for 24 hours, with or without the COX-1/2 inhibitor indomethacin or the selective COX-2 inhibitors NS-398, celecoxib, or rofecoxib. PGE2 and IL-6 in culture supernatants were determined by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)s.


All of the COX inhibitors caused dose-dependent decreases in IL-1beta-stimulated PGE2, to a maximum of > 90% in all cell lines (P < or = 0.0001). The selective COX-2 inhibitors, but not indomethacin, caused partial (generally up to approximately 60%), dose-dependent decreases in IL-1beta-stimulated IL-6 in all cell lines (P < or = 0.003). When exogenous PGE2 was added concurrently with COX-2 inhibitors before addition of IL-1beta, IL-6 production returned to levels at or approaching that produced by cells exposed only to IL-1beta (P < or = 0.04).


The results suggest that COX-2 inhibition may be useful in helping to control fibroblast production of IL-6 in patients with severe periodontitis.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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