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Mol Cell Biochem. 2004 Jan;255(1-2):87-92.

The gender differences in health effects of environmental cadmium exposure and potential mechanisms.

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  • 1Department of Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa, Japan.


On a viewpoint of gender differences in Cd body burden and its health effects, we reviewed the population-based research including our own which conducted in Japan, Thailand, Australia, Poland, Belgium and Sweden to assess health effects of human exposure to environmental cadmium and their potential mechanisms. As a result, six risk factors in Cd health effects in women have been identified; (1) more serious type of renal tubular dysfunction, (2) difference in calcium metabolism and its regulatory hormones, (3) kidney sensitivity; difference in P450 phenotype, (4) pregnancy, (5) body iron store status, and (6) genetic factors. Further studies of Cd toxicity targeted to women would now appear necessary.

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