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Biomaterials. 2004 Jun;25(14):2867-75.

Improved biological performance of Ti implants due to surface modification by micro-arc oxidation.

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  • 1School of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742, South Korea.


The surface of a titanium (Ti) implant was modified by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment. A porous layer was formed on the Ti surface after the oxidation treatment. The phase and morphology of the oxide layer were dependent on the voltage applied during the oxidation treatment. With increasing voltage, the roughness and thickness of the film increased and the TiO(2) phase changed from anatase to rutile. During the MAO treatment, Ca and P ions were incorporated into the oxide layer. The in vitro cell responses of the specimen were also dependant on the oxidation conditions. With increasing voltage, the ALP activity increased, while the cell proliferation rate decreased. Preliminary in vivo tests of the MAO-treated specimens on rabbits showed a considerable improvement in their osseointegration capability as compared to the pure titanium implant.

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