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Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004 Feb;158(2):178-82.

"Benign" extra-axial fluid in survivors of neonatal intensive care.

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  • 1Center for Outcomes Research, Department of Neonatology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3535 Market Street, Suite 1029, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. lorch@e-mail.chop.edu



To identify the prevalence of "benign" extra-axial fluid (BEAF), the risk factors associated with this condition, and the natural history in "graduates" of neonatal intensive care.


Cross-sectional study.


Neonatal follow-up clinic at a tertiary care center.


Seventy-seven infants with a head circumference greater than the 95th percentile by growth percentiles from either the National Center for Health Statistics or the Infant Health and Development Program growth percentile graphs who attended the Neonatal Follow-up Program at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2001.


Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; development at 18 to 24 months.


There were 26 infants (34%) in the BEAF group, 43 (56%) in the control group without extra-axial fluid, and 8 (10%) in the hydrocephalus group. Compared with the control group, infants with BEAF were more likely to have bronchopulmonary dysplasia or to require use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the immediate neonatal period (risk ratio, 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-29.8). Measurements of head circumference in the BEAF group showed rapid growth between 3 and 12 months, followed by growth greater than and parallel to the 95th percentile. Head circumference measurements in the control group showed continued growth along the 95th percentile for age. Infants with BEAF were more likely than controls to develop cerebral palsy (risk ratio, 9.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-77.9) and to have evidence of developmental delay at adjusted ages 12 and 18 to 24 months.


The presence of extra-axial fluid in macrocephalic survivors of neonatal intensive care is associated with an increased risk of developmental delay and cerebral palsy compared with control macrocephalic survivors.

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