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Diabetes. 2004 Feb;53(2):384-92.

Stratification of type 1 diabetes risk on the basis of islet autoantibody characteristics.

Author information

  • 1Diabetes Research Institute and 3rd Medical Department, Hospital M√ľnchen-Schwabing, Munich, Germany.

Erratum in

  • Diabetes. 2004 Apr;53(4):1175-6.


Family history of type 1 diabetes and autoantibodies to the islet antigens insulin (IAA), glutamate decarboxylase (GADA), and the protein tyrosine phosphatase-like protein IA-2 (IA-2A) are strong predictors of type 1 diabetes, but the rate of progression to diabetes in multiple islet autoantibody-positive relatives varies widely. We asked whether detailed characterization of islet autoantibodies that included determination of titer, epitope specificity, and IgG subclass would improve diabetes prediction in a large cohort of autoantibody-positive relatives. The study shows a strong association between risk and high titer, broad antibody responses to IA-2 and insulin. The highest risks were associated with high-titer IA-2A and IAA, IgG2, IgG3, and/or IgG4 subclass of IA-2A and IAA, and antibodies to the IA-2-related molecule IA-2beta. Using models based on these antibody characteristics, autoantibody-positive relatives can be classified into groups with risks of diabetes ranging from 7 to 89% within 5 years.

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