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Biochemistry. 2004 Feb 3;43(4):1065-74.

Rates of elementary catalytic steps for different metal forms of the family II pyrophosphatase from Streptococcus gordonii.

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  • 1A. N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology and School of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Moscow 119899, Russia.


Soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPases) form two nonhomologous families, denoted I and II, that have similar active-site structures but different catalytic activities and metal cofactor specificities. Family II PPases, which are often found in pathogenic bacteria, are more active than family I PPases, and their best cofactor is Mn(2+) rather than Mg(2+), the preferred cofactor of family I PPases. Here, we present results of a detailed kinetic analysis of a family II PPase from Streptococcus gordonii (sgPPase), which was undertaken to elucidate the factors underlying the different properties of family I and II PPases. We measured rates of PP(i) hydrolysis, PP(i) synthesis, and P(i)/water oxygen exchange catalyzed by sgPPase with Mn(2+), Mg(2+), or Co(2+) in the high-affinity metal-binding site and Mg(2+) in the other sites, as well as the binding affinities for several active-site ligands (metal cofactors, fluoride, and P(i)). On the basis of these data, we deduced a minimal four-step kinetic scheme and evaluated microscopic rate constants for all eight relevant reaction steps. Comparison of these results with those obtained previously for the well-known family I PPase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Y-PPase) led to the following conclusions: (a) catalysis by sgPPase does not involve the enzyme-PP(i) complex isomerization known to occur in family I PPases; (b) the values of k(cat) for the magnesium forms of sgPPase and Y-PPase are similar because of similar rates of bound PP(i) hydrolysis and product release; (c) the marked acceleration of sgPPase catalysis in the presence of Mn(2+) and Co(2+) results from a combined effect of these ions on bound PP(i) hydrolysis and P(i) release; (d) sgPPase exhibits lower affinity for both PP(i) and P(i); and (e) sgPPase and Y-PPase exhibit similar values of k(cat)/K(m), which characterizes the PPase efficiency in vivo (i.e., at nonsaturating PP(i) concentrations).

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