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Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Jan;20(1):55-62.

Waist-hip ratio and low HDL predict the risk of coronary artery disease in Pakistanis.

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  • 1Heartfile, 1 Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad, Pakistan.



To establish risk factor causal associations for coronary artery disease (CAD) in the native Pakistani population.


We conducted a hospital-based, case-control study of 200 cases with angiographically documented CAD and 200 age- and sex-matched controls without angiographic evidence of CAD. Patients on lipid lowering therapy were excluded. Lifestyle, anthropometric and biochemical risk factors were assessed in both groups.


The presence of CAD was associated with current, past or passive smoking, a history of diabetes and high blood pressure, a positive family risk factors in this study; levels were below history of CAD, body fat percentage, waist-hip ratio (WHR), low apolipoprotein A1 or low HDL, lipoprotein (a), glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol to HDL ratio (TC/HDL) and creatinine on univariate conditional logistic regression analysis. In multiple regression analysis, significant independent associations were found with low HDL (OR 0.11; 95% CI 0.04-0.34; p < 0.001) positive family history (OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.09-2.93; p = 0.02), CRP (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.19-1.75; p < 0.001) and WHR (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.08; p = 0.01). Angiograms were also quantified for the extent and severity of CAD by the Gensini scoring system. Quantitative angiographic data showed associations with age (p = 0.01), the duration of diabetes (p = 0.04), WHR (p = 0.06), low HDL (p < 0.001), lipoprotein (a) (p = 0.001), creatinine (p < 0.001) and CRP (p = 0.007). Results indicate that total and LDL cholesterol were not significant currently accepted thresholds for treatment.


The cardiovascular risk profile in this population is consistent with metabolic syndrome where low HDL and WHR can be used to predict the risk of CAD. Results suggest the need to redefine the currently practised approach to CAD management in this population to fit local needs.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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