Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Feb 3;101(5):1345-9. Epub 2004 Jan 21.

Giant plasmid-encoded polyketide synthases produce the macrolide toxin of Mycobacterium ulcerans.

Author information

  • 1Unité de Génétique Moléculaire Bactérienne, Génopole, Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, 75725 Paris Cedex 15, France.


Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), an emerging human pathogen harbored by aquatic insects, is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, a devastating skin disease rife throughout Central and West Africa. Mycolactone, an unusual macrolide with cytotoxic and immunosuppressive properties, is responsible for the massive s.c. tissue destruction seen in Buruli ulcer. Here, we show that MU contains a 174-kb plasmid, pMUM001, bearing a cluster of genes encoding giant polyketide synthases (PKSs), and polyketide-modifying enzymes, and demonstrate that these are necessary and sufficient for mycolactone synthesis. This is a previously uncharacterized example of plasmid-mediated virulence in a Mycobacterium, and the emergence of MU as a pathogen most likely reflects the acquisition of pMUM001 by horizontal transfer. The 12-membered core of mycolactone is produced by two giant, modular PKSs, MLSA1 (1.8 MDa) and MLSA2 (0.26 MDa), whereas its side chain is synthesized by MLSB (1.2 MDa), a third modular PKS highly related to MLSA1. There is an extreme level of sequence identity within the different domains of the MLS cluster (>97% amino acid identity), so much so that the 16 ketosynthase domains seem functionally identical. This is a finding of significant consequence for our understanding of polyketide biochemistry. Such detailed knowledge of mycolactone will further the investigation of its mode of action and the development of urgently needed therapeutic strategies to combat Buruli ulcer.

Comment in

  • Buruli toxin genes decoded. [Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004]
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Images from this publication.See all images (5)Free text

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk