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J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 26;279(13):12027-35. Epub 2004 Jan 13.

SREBP-1 interacts with hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha and interferes with PGC-1 recruitment to suppress hepatic gluconeogenic genes.

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  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575, Japan.

Abstract

The hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha)/PGC-1 pathway plays a crucial role in the transcriptional regulation of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and Glc-6-Pase, genes that are activated at fasting and suppressed in a fed state. SREBP-1c dominates the nutritional regulation of lipogenic genes inverse to gluconeogenesis. Here we show the mechanism by which SREBP-1 suppresses expression of gluconeogenic genes. A series of luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that SREBP-1a and -1c effectively inhibited the PEPCK promoter activity that was induced by HNF-4alpha. The HNF-4alpha-binding site in the glucocorticoid-response unit was responsible for the SREBP-1 inhibition, although SREBP-1 did not bind to the PEPCK promoter as demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The inhibitory effect was more potent in the isoform of SREBP-1a than SREBP-1c and was eliminated by deletion of the amino-terminal transactivation domain of SREBP-1. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that these two transcription factors directly interact through the transactivation domain of SREBP-1 and the ligand binding/AF2 domains of HNF-4alpha. Estimation of coactivator recruitment using HNF-4alpha-Gal4DBD fusion assay showed that SREBP-1 competitively inhibited PGC-1 recruitment, a requirement for HNF-4alpha activation. Consistent with these results, hepatic PEPCK and Glc-6-Pase mRNA levels are suppressed by overexpression of SREBP-1a and -1c in the transgenic mice. Our data indicate that SREBP-1 has a novel role as negative regulator of gluconeogenic genes through a cross-talk with HNF-4alpha interference with PGC-1 recruitment.

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